URBANISM AS A BASE OF URBAN PLANNING ACTIVITIES
What is Urbanism?
Urbanism is a scientific field that deals with planning and designing urban settlements and their surrounds for existential, long term human use and human needs in accordance with global environmental potentials. Professional applying above science is an Urbanist or Urban Researcher.
Human population, as almost all other living creatures, have natural instinct to arrange their settlements for survival and prolongation of their species.
First, organized human settlements appeared to be in Neolith around 10.000 years BC, at most appropriate ecological locations on Earth.
First urban settlements, (in Egypt 3000 BC; Mesopotamia 2700 BC; North China 1300 BC), appear with the development of primary technologies and development of primary agriculture, which produced first food reserves for survival.
Ancient nations built their settlements by intuitive, ecological and environmental boundaries.
First written urban theories were extracted from the Ancient Greek period, (Plato 427-347 BC, Aristotle 384-323 BC).
Roman urban experience and urban legislation are known even today from Marcus Vitruvius “De Architecture Urbi Decem” whose instruction guide is or should be standard for all architects after him even by today’s understanding of urban philosophy.
Actual urban theories appeared at the beginning of the 17th century with the new technologies and industrialisation which were the reason for town’s growth.
At the beginning of the 20th century, urban agglomerations became larger and new theories intended to make it more accommodating for new human activities. Doxiadis and his followers promote theory of ecumenopolis, as the human way of urban living.
In the last decades of the 20th century and first decades of 21st century new challenge for Urbanism and global urban planning philosophy, were numerous new built urban agglomerations with more than 10 million of inhabitants all around the world.
Actual theories for future urban development would encounter complex scientific process in organising, designing and reconstructing existing urban agglomerations.
Existing, giant urban agglomerations with more than 100 km in the diameter, with several millions of square meters of hundred stories buildings, developed traffic systems and industrial production are based on very sophisticated technologies which required sophisticated technological knowledge and scientific researches.
More millions of inhabitants have very different sociological needs and problems in every big city with different ethnic and economic system, require special sociological, political and economic knowledge.
Government management of these urban communities is the problem for political and communal management.
At last, actual cities and their surroundings, have very complex and different ecological problems of protecting the global environment in tolerant equilibrium for actual and future generations.
Urbanism and urban planning activities must concern and be further developed on the bases of very large scientific expertise in Urbanism as a special field of urban planning theories and practice.
That is why the urban planning shouldn’t be the concern of only spatial and town planners. Urban planning has to be the principal concern of the complex team of different specialist with the leadership of well-educated and experienced urbanists.
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